Before I dive into the history of Yabusame, I would like to recommend you a link to an episode of the Tim Ferriss Show. He is an amazing guy and he will show you what it means to learn the skill set for the Japanese Horseback Archery in a very short amount of time. Enjoy the ride here.
Yabusame is a special type of mounted archery in traditional Japanese archery where an archer on a running horse shoots three wooden targets with three turnip-headed arrows. The history of this archery can be traced back to the Kamakura Period when Minamoto no Yorimoto organized it as a way for his samurai to practice archery. Today, Yabusame is practiced at Shimogano Shrine in Kyoto during the Aoi Matsuri (early May) and Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gu in Kamakura. It is also practiced in Zushi at the beach and in Samikawa, among other areas in Japan. Generally, Yabusame is held near Shinto Shrines throughout the year.